As for the territorial structure of vine varieties - considering wine-grapes
giving white, quality wines - the Italian Riesling stands on the first
place. It is followed by the Müller-Thurgau (Rizlingszilváni) then the
Considering wine-grapes giving red, quality wines the Kékfrankos is the most
widespread. It is followed by the Zweigelt, the Kékoportó and the Cabernet
The white- and the blue grape varieties are arranged according to ripening
The last step of vinegrowing and the first step of winemaking is vintage.
Its time is to be chosen properly, as the sugar contents of the ripening
berries is getting more and more, but the precious acids in them start to
get decomposed. The right time is when the harmonious balance of sugar and
acid is reached.
Vintage is the beginning of the birth of wine. It is important how it is
performed. Optimal is a vintage done by hand.
The sugar degree of the must gained from the berries shows the ripeness
degree of the grape. This usually comes to 16-23 degrees and the alcohol
contents of the wine made of it will be about 10-13%.
Making white wine
White wine grapes are weighed and classified according to quality and
variety. First the berries and the cap stems are separated, that is followed
by crushing, when the skin of the berries is burst. The must running out on
its own is of the best quality. The rest is pressed out as well, and this is
usually treated separately, as it is of poorer quality and tastes tarter.
The presses of our days, especially in quality wine making, work with lower
pressure than the older ones. Must is separated from mash as soon as
possible, the must is filled into fermentation tanks (casks). Among white
wines some are dipped on skin (max. for a few hours), especially those whose
skin contains flavour and aroma materials
(e.g. Muskotály, Tramini).
Making red wine
The flesh of good-quality grapes does not contain any colour-material, only
the skin of the berries. That is why, when making red wine and after the
separation of cap stems and crushing, dipping on skin is performed in open
vats (open fermenter). This usually lasts one week, during which time the
colour- and tannic materials (tannin) come from the skin in the wine, in
consequence of regularly repeated stirring. Stirring* is needed for
dissolving of the colour-, aroma- and tannic materials from the different
parts of the berries. There are closed fermenters as well - in recent years
these have become more wide-spread - red wines with fruit flavour are made
in them. As opposed to white wines, the wine is only filled into casks after
fermentation has finished.
Making rosé wine
If rosé wine is made of grapes with high colour-contents, enough
colour-material gets into the must already at pressing. If not, a 1-2 day
long dipping on skin or fermentation is needed. It is worth performing the
dipping in carbon-dioxide atmosphere, so the fragrance- and flavour
materials characteristic of the variety can be preserved.